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What is saturation?
I'm going to talk about ventilation and respiration. Ventilation is done by breathing, which consists of taking O2 from outside to inside, and CO2 from inside to outside, in a very simple way. Ventilation is the main driver of hemodynamics, i.e. blood circulation. Even before the heart, how is the venous return? When I breathe in, the diaphragm pulls on the venous and splanchnic circulation, and brings all the venous blood back to the right heart. It is the first engine of hemodynamics.
CO2 from inside to outside, it’s also to regulate the pH of the body through the carbonic acid buffer. Expired CO2 comes from the CO2 produced by our cellular metabolism in the form of carbonic acid. We continuously produce CO2 through internal combustion that keeps us alive. From carbon chains and oxygen that comes from the atmosphere for cellular metabolism, we manufacture CO2 in the mitochondria to produce energy, ATP.
So we have to transport oxygen to every cell and into the mitochondria, our ATP energy plants. O2 comes quite easily, for example if I do laps in a swimming pool, in apnea, 3 minutes underwater, I will slowly lower my O2 level in the blood, but I will not desaturate. I will still have enough. But in the meantime I'm going to produce a lot of CO2, all the time. The amount of O2 in the blood is called oxemia, and the CO2 in the blood is called capnia.


Tags: pulse oxygen mask carbon dioxyde

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